This article in series of diabetes article is most important as it suggests the proper management of diabetes. I am trying to address all part of society from poor to rich, as diabetes can happen to anyone. I’ll take reference from many other internet resources and will try to put it brief and simple.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, for which there is no known cure except in very specific situations. Management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal (“euglycemia”) as possible, without causing hypoglycemia. This can usually be accomplished with diet, exercise, and use of appropriate medications (insulin in the case of type 1 diabetes; oral medications, as well as possibly insulin, in type 2 diabetes).
How much should you eat each day?
Have about 1,200 to 1,600 calories a day if you are
- a small woman who exercises
- a small or medium woman who wants to lose weight
- a medium woman who does not exercise much
Have about 1,600 to 2,000 calories a day if you are
- a large woman who wants to lose weight
- a small man at a healthy weight
- a medium man who does not exercise much
- a medium to large man who wants to lose weight
Have about 2,000 to 2,400 calories a day if you are
- a medium to large man who does a lot of exercise or has a physically active job
- a large man at a healthy weight
- a large woman who exercises a lot or has a physically active job
|Calories per day||Starches||Vegetables||Fruit||Milk and yoghurt||Meat or meat substitute||Fats and sweets|
|1,200 to 1,600||6||3||2||2||2||up to 3|
|1,600 to 2,000||8||4||3||2||2||up to 4|
|2,000 to 2,400||11||4||3||2||2||up to 5|
Well this is just a table and you cannot count the nutrients in each of your diet, so follow these steps.
- Choose foods that are lower in calories, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and salt.
- Eat foods with more fiber, such as whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta.
- Choose foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, bread and cereals, and low-fat or skim milk and cheese.
- Drink water instead of juice and regular soda.
- When eating a meal, fill half of your plate with fruits and vegetables, one quarter with a lean protein, such as beans, or chicken or turkey without the skin, and one quarter with a whole grain, such as brown rice or whole wheat pasta.
Eat green vegetable, and normal food like Dal rice, shambhar rice, roti, stay away from fast food, all fried food, you can have spices in your food but stay away from vegetable oil or cholesterol rich item.
Tips for the active diabetic:
- Get to know your body by monitoring your blood sugar levels consistently (tools are available in market, check with your nearest medical store).
- Make sure you schedule activities in accordance with your insulin checks and eating schedule. Exercising after you’ve gone too long without eating can be problematic and lead to hypoglycemia or worse, a diabetic coma.
- Make sure carbohydrate foods are available to you for quick consumption during and after excessive exercise.
- Restrict your physical activity to 40 minutes or less to ensure you do not become hypoglycemic.
- If you are just starting an exercise program after being inactive, consult your doctor to make sure the activity you choose is one that won’t present problems given your current levels.
- Work with your doctor to set up an activity schedule. You may need to wait a while after exercise before taking insulin to prevent a sudden drop in levels.
- Take care of your feet by examining them before and after exercise. Use a good fitting sneaker and smooth socks to prevent abrasions. If you have any calluses or cuts, attend to them immediately.
- Never exercise without your medical tag or without others knowing you are diabetic. For instance, if you’re playing a sport, make sure team members or coaches know about your diabetes and how to recognize signs you may be in trouble.
- Drink plenty of fluids while you exercise. Not only do you need to hydrate yourself, but you will be burning lots of glucose if you are doing heavy activity and you’ll need to replace that with a carbohydrate drink, not water or diet drinks.
- Make it a habit to pack glucose tablets or hard candy in your gym bag so you’ll have it on hand if you suddenly need it.
- Pay attention to the warning signs that you’re over doing it. If you become dizzy, nauseous, feel faint, have chest pains or pains under your armpit, stop your activity immediately. Wait 15 minutes to see if you feel better. If you don’t, call your doctor.
- Keep in mind that the effects of exercise won’t happen right away. Hypoglycemia is more likely to occur 4-6 hours after exercise than immediately following exercise, giving Type 1 diabetics a false sense of security. This is why monitoring of blood sugar levels is so important. Don’t let the fear of over doing stop you from exercise.
Exercise is a wonderful way to keep your body in shape and your diabetes under control as long as you monitor yourself carefully.
The above mentioned tips was for people who are staying in cities and towns. If you are staying in countryside you can follow these steps.
- Stress can raise your blood sugar. Learn ways to lower your stress. Try deep breathing, gardening, taking a walk, meditating, working on your hobby, or listening to your favorite music.
- Ask for help if you feel down. A mental health counselor, support group, member of the clergy, friend, or family member who will listen to your concerns may help you feel better.
Follow your daily medicines as suggested by your doctor.