Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis

A physician will recognize the classic symptoms of type 1 diabetes quite easily and order the proper blood, urine and insulin tests. These tests are very simple and quite painless and will traditionally provide a complete analysis and diagnosis in a very short period of time.

Symptoms

  • Being very thirsty
  • Urinating often
  • Feeling tired for no reason
  • Feeling very hungry
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Having sores that heal slowly
  • Having dry, itchy skin
  • Losing the feeling in your feet or having tingling in your feet
  • Having blurry eyesight
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis – a very dangerous symptom when diabetes goes undiagnosed

While there are other diseases that might have similar symptoms, if you notice you or your child experiencing any of these symptoms, it’s best to consult your physician right away so that you can be testing and be properly diagnosed.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:

  • Fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl)
  • Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dL) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test
  • Symptoms of hyperglycemia and casual plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl)
  • Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) ≥ 6.5%.

A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the above methods on a different day. It is preferable to measure a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and the considerable time commitment of formal glucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantage over the fasting test. According to the current definition, two fasting glucose measurements above 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) is considered diagnostic for diabetes mellitus.

People with fasting glucose levels from 110 to 125 mg/dl (6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l) are considered to have impaired fasting glucose . Patients with plasma glucose at or above 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L), but not over 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load are considered to have impaired glucose tolrence. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease.

Glycated hemoglobin is better than fasting glucose for determining risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause.

Treatment

Medication

Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes, as there is good evidence that it decreases mortality. Routine use of aspirin, however, has not been found to improve outcomes in uncomplicated diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is typically treated with a combinations of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin analog. When insulin is used in type 2 diabetes, a long-acting formulation is usually added initially, while continuing oral medications. Doses of insulin are then increased to effect.

Consult your doctor ASAP, If your doctor is suggesting for heavy medication (usually happens in India) then try consulting good doctor. A good doctor will never recommend 4-5 drugs.

Related links
Diabetes
Diabetes management

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